A Comprehensive Guide to types of Squirrels and Chipmunks in North Carolina: Insights for Homeowners

North Carolina, with its rich and diverse habitats ranging from coastal plains to towering mountains, is home to a fascinating variety of wildlife. Among these creatures are the often-overlooked but incredibly intriguing members of the Sciuridae family: the squirrels and chipmunks. For homeowners, understanding these animals’ behaviors, needs, and the challenges they can present is vital. This comprehensive guide delves deep into the world of North Carolina’s squirrels and chipmunks, offering educational insights tailored for homeowners and highlighting how services like Freedom Wildlife Solutions can aid in managing any related issues.

The Ubiquitous Eastern Gray Squirrel

Gray Squirrel

The Eastern Gray Squirrel (Sciurus carolinensis) is perhaps the most familiar to North Carolina residents. This squirrel is not only widespread but has also been adopted as the state mammal. It’s known for its adaptable nature and can live up to 12 years in the wild. These squirrels are commonly spotted in backyards, parks, and forests, often seen darting up trees or across power lines. They are primarily active during the day and are known for their playful and curious behavior.

However, their curiosity can sometimes lead them into conflict with homeowners. They are known to cause property damage by chewing on wood, wires, and even digging in gardens. They are also frequent uninvited guests at bird feeders, often going to great lengths to access the food. Despite these challenges, the Eastern Gray Squirrel plays a vital role in the ecosystem by aiding in seed dispersal and providing a food source for predators​​​​.

The Majestic Fox Squirrel

Fox Squirrel

The Fox Squirrel (Sciurus niger), nearly twice the size of the Gray Squirrel, is the largest tree squirrel in North Carolina. It’s distinguished by its larger size and more varied coloration, which can range from gray to red to black. The Fox Squirrel prefers habitats with mature longleaf pine and open pine-oak forests, primarily found in the Sandhills and southern Coastal Plain regions.

Fox Squirrels are less commonly seen than their Gray counterparts, partly due to their more specific habitat requirements and lower population densities. They are also a focus of conservation efforts, reflecting the importance of maintaining their natural habitats. For homeowners living near their habitats, Fox Squirrels can be a majestic sight, though they too can become a nuisance if they start to damage property or raid bird feeders.

The Nocturnal Marvels: Flying Squirrels

Flying Squirrel

North Carolina is home to two species of Flying Squirrels: the Southern Flying Squirrel (Glaucomys volans) and the Northern Flying Squirrel (Glaucomys sabrinus). These squirrels are smaller than their ground-dwelling cousins and are known for their distinctive gliding ability. They have a membrane of skin between their front and back legs that allows them to glide from tree to tree, an adaptation that is as practical for evading predators as it is for moving through the forest.

Flying Squirrels are nocturnal, which means they are active at night. This nocturnal behavior, combined with their gliding, makes them one of the more elusive and less understood squirrels in North Carolina. However, they are essential for the ecosystem, particularly in their role as seed dispersers and as prey for larger nocturnal predators. Homeowners might occasionally hear them during the night or spot them with a flashlight but are less likely to encounter them compared to the more diurnal Gray and Fox Squirrels.

The Charming Chipmunks


Chipmunks, while not squirrels, are close relatives and share the same family, Sciuridae. In North Carolina, the Eastern Chipmunk (Tamias striatus) is the most common. These small, striped creatures are easily recognizable by their ruddy brown coloration with distinctive stripes along their backs and their cheeky, energetic behavior.

Chipmunks are ground-dwellers and are often found in areas with ample cover, such as wooded areas, gardens, and even sometimes under homes. They are known for their burrowing habits, which can sometimes become a problem for homeowners when they burrow too close to foundations or in gardens. Like their tree-squirrel cousins, they are also known for raiding bird feeders and occasionally getting into homes in search of food. Despite these issues, chipmunks play a crucial role in the ecosystem, particularly in seed dispersal and as a food source for various predators.

The Importance of Habitat

One of the most significant factors affecting all these species is their habitat. For instance, the Eastern Gray Squirrel is particularly dependent on areas with mature hardwood trees and a steady supply of nuts like acorns. The Fox Squirrel’s preference for longleaf pine and open pine-oak forests dictates its distribution, while Flying Squirrels require dense canopies for gliding and nesting. Chipmunks need areas with ample ground cover and access to food sources.

For homeowners, this means that how they manage their yards and the types of trees and plants they cultivate can significantly influence the local squirrel and chipmunk populations. Maintaining a variety of native plants and trees can provide food and shelter for these animals, while certain landscaping choices might deter them from settling too close to the home.

When Squirrels and Chipmunks Become a Nuisance

While squirrels and chipmunks can be delightful to watch and serve important ecological roles, they can sometimes become a nuisance for homeowners. This is often the case when they cause property damage, such as chewing on electrical wires, digging up gardens, or nesting in attics. They can also be a health concern if they’re getting into your home, as they can carry parasites and diseases.

In these cases, it’s essential to address the issue humanely and effectively. This is where services like Freedom Wildlife Solutions come into play. They specialize in the squirrel removal and management of squirrels and chipmunks, employing strategies that are both effective for the homeowner and humane for the animal. This might include sealing entry points to prevent animals from getting into homes, using live traps to relocate animals, or providing advice on how to make your property less attractive to them.


Squirrels and chipmunks are much more than just casual backyard visitors. They’re an integral part of North Carolina’s ecosystems, with each species contributing its unique habits and ecological roles. For homeowners, understanding these creatures, their needs, and the challenges they can present is the first step in living harmoniously with them. And when the situation calls for it, professional services like those provided by Freedom Wildlife Solutions are invaluable in ensuring a peaceful coexistence. So next time you spot a squirrel darting across your yard or hear a chipmunk chirping away, take a moment to appreciate these fascinating creatures and consider how your actions impact their world. Have you noticed any particular behaviors or challenges with the squirrels or chipmunks in your area?

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